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Проць Б.Г., Кагало О.О. Скрильніков Д.В. Плани конвергенції директив Європейського Союзу щодо охорони природи в Україні. - Львів: Ліга Пресс. 2017...

Main causes of illegal logging

The high volumes of illegal logging were recorded since 1990s years. Such illegal logging appeared during economic crisis, when economics of remote areas was practically destroyed and also because of new market condition, in which were put woodworking and trading companies.

There are several causes of illegal logging. Those causes could be divided into two groups:

Social: mainly because of unemployment and poverty in rural areas where wood is the most valuable and important resource. Poor social conditions are the most common cause of illegal logging. While such logging are usually small and mainly intended to meet their own needs of local people. One of such reason is that the price of firewood that is lawfully supplied to local residents is considered by them to be too high. Apart from this small logging for the needs of household is considered by local population as traditional, it is why the guards are under pressure to make it permitted.

Economic: they are the most important causes of illegal logging in Ukraine and often are combined with social (as these causes combine the desire to profit or accumulation of wealth). Illegal logging is based on economic reasons and has certain special characteristics. The main characteristic is that these illegal logging are carried out by people who get money from them but not for the survival and providing sustenance for their families, but for greater benefits. So these logging, mainly, is well organized, including the document forgery and can create a long chain of activities, for instance, from logging in the forests to export of processed timber or round timber. Such activity is also protected by corrupt government and, sometimes, even by scientists. This reasons’ group also includes logging in areas unlawfully excluded from the forest lands for the purpose of building or mining development. Low wages that are officially paid for forester is also an economic reason for hiding small logging by the guardians and their support for companies engaged in illegal logging. The presence of run on illegal wood (timber) abroad encourages transgressors inside the country.

Legal and administrative:

  • gaps in the forest legislation. For example, the legal aspects of forest management procedures are complicated and unclear;
  • judicial system is weak and ineffective and does not punish all transgressors;

State Forestry Committee of Ukraine has too many opposing powers, for example, sets the policy, has legislative functions, has to do with managerial and financial aspects, as well as supervise and control. This leads to the risk of appearing of corruption and conflict of interest.

Such situation also allows the State Forestry Committee to have a wide range of authority leverages over forest science;

  • lack of transparency of the State Forestry Committee of Ukraine;
  • representatives of the State Forestry Committee of Ukraine noted that foresters are vulnerable to pressure the local population which believes that illegal logging conducted by locals, is a normal activity.

Source: Illegal logging in Ukraine

 

Illegal logging: volume and causes

Anatoly Deyneka Lviv Regional Administration of Forest and Hunting Economy, Lviv.

... disregard of environmental and forest law by members of forest relations in Ukraine is a serious problem that manifests itself in large volumes of illegal logging.

Illegal logging poses a threat to the implementation by forest its ecological, social and economic functions. According to statistics of the Lviv Regional Administration of Forest and Hunting Economy [1] in the forests of Lviv region in 2010 recorded 7,927 m3 of illegal logging, the amount of damage is 17,664,638 UAH. At the objects of the nature-reserved fund of region illegal logging in the volume of 1762 m3 and the amount of damage 2,970,000 UAH is discovered.

Source: http://pryroda.in.ua.